Dancing with Systems

By Donella H. Meadows Whole Earth  Winter 2001

People who are raised in the industrial world and who get enthused about systems thinking are likely to make a terrible mistake. They are likely to assume that here, in systems analysis, in interconnection and complication, in the power of the computer, here at last, is the key to prediction and control. This mistake is likely because the mindset of the industrial world assumes that there is a key to prediction and control.

I assumed that at first too. We all assumed it, as eager systems students at the great institution called MIT. More or less innocently, enchanted by what we could see through our new lens, we did what many discoverers do. We exaggerated our own ability to change the world. We did so not with any intent to deceive others, but in the expression of our own expectations and hopes. Systems thinking for us was more than subtle, complicated mindplay. It was going to Make Systems Work.

But self-organizing, nonlinear, feedback systems are inherently unpredictable. They are not controllable. They are understandable only in the most general way. The goal of foreseeing the future exactly and preparing for it perfectly is unrealizable. The idea of making a complex system do just what you want it to do can be achieved only temporarily, at best. We can never fully understand our world, not in the way our reductionistic science has led us to expect. Our science itself, from quantum theory to the mathematics of chaos, leads us into irreducible uncertainty. For any objective other than the most trivial, we can’t optimize; we don’t even know what to optimize. We can’t keep track of everything. We can’t find a proper, sustainable relationship to nature, each other, or the institutions we create, if we try to do it from the role of omniscient conqueror.

For those who stake their identity on the role of omniscient conqueror, the uncertainty exposed by systems thinking is hard to take. If you can’t understand, predict, and control, what is there to do?

Systems thinking leads to another conclusion, however waiting, shining, obvious as soon as we stop being blinded by the illusion of control. It says that there is plenty to do, of a different sort of “doing.” The future can’t be predicted, but it can be envisioned and brought lovingly into being. Systems can’t be controlled, but they can be designed and redesigned. We can’t surge forward with certainty into a world of no surprises, but we can expect surprises and learn from them and even profit from them. We can’t impose our will upon a system. We can listen to what the system tells us, and discover how its properties and our values can work together to bring forth something much better than could ever be produced by our will alone.

We can’t control systems or figure them out. But we can dance with them! I already knew that, in a way before I began to study systems. I had learned about dancing with great powers from whitewater kayaking, from gardening, from playing music, from skiing. All those endeavors require one to stay wide awake, pay close attention, participate flat out, and respond to feedback. It had never occurred to me that those same requirements might apply to intellectual work, to management, to government, to getting along with people.

But there it was, the message emerging from every computer model we made. Living successfully in a world of systems requires more of us than our ability to calculate. It requires our full humanity our rationality, our ability to sort out truth from falsehood, our intuition, our compassion, our vision, and our morality.

I will summarize the most general “systems wisdoms” I have absorbed from modeling complex systems and hanging out with modelers. These are the take-home lessons, the concepts and practices that penetrate the discipline of systems so deeply that one begins, however imperfectly, to practice them not just in one’s profession, but in all of life.

The list probably isn’t complete, because I am still a student in the school of systems. And it isn’t unique to systems thinking. There are many ways to learn to dance. But here, as a start-off dancing lesson, are the practices I see my colleagues adopting, consciously or unconsciously, as they encounter systems.

Get the beat.

Before you disturb the system in any way, watch how it behaves. If it’s a piece of music or a whitewater rapid or a fluctuation in a commodity price, study its beat. If it’s a social system, watch it work. Learn its history. Ask people who’ve been around a long time to tell you what has happened. If possible, find or make a time graph of actual data from the system. Peoples’ memories are not always reliable when it comes to timing.

Starting with the behavior of the system forces you to focus on facts, not theories. It keeps you from falling too quickly into your own beliefs or misconceptions, or those of others. It’s amazing how many misconceptions there can be. People will swear that rainfall is decreasing, say, but when you look at the data, you find that what is really happening is that variability is increasing the droughts are deeper, but the floods are greater too. I have been told with great authority that milk price was going up when it was going down, that real interest rates were falling when they were rising, that the deficit was a higher fraction of the GNP than ever before when it wasn’t.

Starting with the behavior of the system directs one’s thoughts to dynamic, not static analysis not only to “what’s wrong?” but also to “how did we get there?” and “what behavior modes are possible?” and “if we don’t change direction, where are we going to end up?”

And finally, starting with history discourages the common and distracting tendency we all have to define a problem not by the system’s actual behavior, but by the lack of our favorite solution. (The problem is, we need to find more oil. The problem is, we need to ban abortion. The problem is, how can we attract more growth to this town?)

Listen to the wisdom of the system.

Aid and encourage the forces and structures that help the system run itself. Don’t be an unthinking intervener and destroy the system’s own self-maintenance capacities. Before you charge in to make things better, pay attention to the value of what’s already there.

A friend of mine, Nathan Gray, was once an aid worker in Guatemala. He told me of his frustration with agencies that would arrive with the intention of “creating jobs” and “increasing entrepreneurial abilities” and “attracting outside investors.” They would walk right past the thriving local market, where small-scale business people of all kinds, from basket-makers to vegetable growers to butchers to candy sellers, were displaying their entrepreneurial abilities in jobs they had created for themselves. Nathan spent his time talking to the people in the market, asking about their lives and businesses, learning what was in the way of those businesses expanding and incomes rising. He concluded that what was needed was not outside investors, but inside ones. Small loans available at reasonable interest rates, and classes in literacy and accounting, would produce much more long-term good for the community than bringing in a factory or assembly plant from outside.

Expose your mental models to the open air.

Remember, always, that everything you know, and everything everyone knows, is only a model. Get your model out there where it can be shot at. Invite others to challenge your assumptions and add their own. Instead of becoming a champion for one possible explanation or hypothesis or model, collect as many as possible. Consider all of them plausible until you find some evidence that causes you to rule one out. That way you will be emotionally able to see the evidence that rules out an assumption with which you might have confused your own identity.

You don’t have to put forth your mental model with diagrams and equations, though that’s a good discipline. You can do it with words or lists or pictures or arrows showing what you think is connected to what. The more you do that, in any form, the clearer your thinking will become, the faster you will admit your uncertainties and correct your mistakes, and the more flexible you will learn to be. Mental flexibility the willingness to redraw boundaries, to notice that a system has shifted into a new mode, to see how to redesign structure is a necessity when you live in a world of flexible systems.

Stay humble. Stay a learner.

Systems thinking has taught me to trust my intuition more and my figuring-out rationality less, to lean on both as much as I can, but still to be prepared for surprises. Working with systems, on the computer, in nature, among people, in organizations, constantly reminds me of how incomplete my mental models are, how complex the world is, and how much I don’t know.

The thing to do, when you don’t know, is not to bluff and not to freeze, but to learn. The way you learn is by experiment or, as Buckminster Fuller put it, by trial and error, error, error. In a world of complex systems it is not appropriate to charge forward with rigid, undeviating directives. “Stay the course” is only a good idea if you’re sure you’re on course. Pretending you’re in control even when you aren’t is a recipe not only for mistakes, but for not learning from mistakes. What’s appropriate when you’re learning is small steps, constant monitoring, and a willingness to change course as you find out more about where it’s leading.

That’s hard. It means making mistakes and, worse, admitting them. It means what psychologist Don Michael calls “error-embracing.” It takes a lot of courage to embrace your errors.

Honor and protect information.

A decision-maker can’t respond to information he or she doesn’t have, can’t respond accurately to information that is inaccurate, can’t respond in a timely way to information that is late. I would guess that 99 percent of what goes wrong in systems goes wrong because of faulty or missing information.

If I could, I would add an Eleventh Commandment: Thou shalt not distort, delay, or sequester information. You can drive a system crazy by muddying its information streams. You can make a system work better with surprising ease if you can give it more timely, accurate, and complete information.

For example, in 1986 new federal legislation required US companies to report all chemical emissions from each of their plants. Through the Freedom of Information Act (from a systems point of view one of the most important laws in the nation) that information became a matter of public record. In July 1988 the first data on chemical emissions became available. The reported emissions were not illegal, but they didn’t look very good when they were published in local papers by enterprising reporters, who had a tendency to make lists of “the top ten local polluters.” That’s all that happened. There were no lawsuits, no required reductions, no fines, no penalties. But within two years chemical emissions nationwide (as least as reported, and presumably also in fact) had decreased by 40 percent. Some companies were launching policies to bring their emissions down by 90 percent, just because of the release of previously sequestered information.

Locate responsibility in the system.

Look for the ways the system creates its own behavior. Do pay attention to the triggering events, the outside influences that bring forth one kind of behavior from the system rather than another. Sometimes those outside events can be controlled (as in reducing the pathogens in drinking water to keep down incidences of infectious disease). But sometimes they can’t. And sometimes blaming or trying to control the outside influence blinds one to the easier task of increasing responsibility within the system.

“Intrinsic responsibility” means that the system is designed to send feedback about the consequences of decision-making directly and quickly and compellingly to the decision-makers.

Dartmouth College reduced intrinsic responsibility when it took thermostats out of individual offices and classrooms and put temperature-control decisions under the guidance of a central computer. That was done as an energy-saving measure. My observation from a low level in the hierarchy is that the main consequence was greater oscillations in room temperature. When my office gets overheated now, instead of turning down the thermostat, I have to call an office across campus, which gets around to making corrections over a period of hours or days, and which often overcorrects, setting up the need for another phone call. One way of making that system more, rather than less, responsible, might have been to let professors keep control of their own thermostats and charge them directly for the amount of energy they use. (Thereby privatizing a commons!)

Designing a system for intrinsic responsibility could mean, for example, requiring all towns or companies that emit wastewater into a stream to place their intake pipe downstream from their outflow pipe. It could mean that neither insurance companies nor public funds should pay for medical costs resulting from smoking or from accidents in which a motorcycle rider didn’t wear a helmet or a car rider didn’t fasten the seat belt. It could mean Congress would no longer be allowed to legislate rules from which it exempts itself.

Make feedback policies for feedback systems.

President Jimmy Carter had an unusual ability to think in feedback terms and to make feedback policies. Unfortunately he had a hard time explaining them to a press and public that didn’t understand feedback.

He suggested, at a time when oil imports were soaring, that there be a tax on gasoline proportional to the fraction of US oil consumption that had to be imported. If imports continued to rise the tax would rise, until it suppressed demand and brought forth substitutes and reduced imports. If imports fell to zero, the tax would fall to zero.

The tax never got passed.

Carter was also trying to deal with a flood of illegal immigrants from Mexico. He suggested that nothing could be done about that immigration as long as there was a great gap in opportunity and living standards between the US and Mexico. Rather than spending money on border guards and barriers, he said, we should spend money helping to build the Mexican economy, and we should continue to do so until the immigration stopped.

That never happened either.

You can imagine why a dynamic, self-adjusting system cannot be governed by a static, unbending policy. It’s easier, more effective, and usually much cheaper to design policies that change depending on the state of the system. Especially where there are great uncertainties, the best policies not only contain feedback loops, but meta-feedback loops loops that alter, correct, and expand loops. These are policies that design learning into the management process.

Pay attention to what is important, not just what is quantifiable.

Our culture, obsessed with numbers, has given us the idea that what we can measure is more important than what we can’t measure. You can look around and make up your own mind about whether quantity or quality is the outstanding characteristic of the world in which you live.

If something is ugly, say so. If it is tacky, inappropriate, out of proportion, unsustainable, morally degrading, ecologically impoverishing, or humanly demeaning, don’t let it pass. Don’t be stopped by the “if you can’t define it and measure it, I don’t have to pay attention to it” ploy. No one can [precisely] define or measure justice, democracy, security, freedom, truth, or love. No one can [precisely] define or measure any value. But if no one speaks up for them, if systems aren’t designed to produce them, if we don’t speak about them and point toward their presence or absence, they will cease to exist.

Go for the good of the whole.

Don’t maximize parts of systems or subsystems while ignoring the whole. As Kenneth Boulding once said, don’t go to great trouble to optimize something that never should be done at all. Aim to enhance total systems properties, such as [creativity], stability, diversity, resilience, and sustainability whether they are easily measured or not.

As you think about a system, spend part of your time from a vantage point that lets you see the whole system, not just the problem that may have drawn you to focus on the system to begin with. And realize that, especially in the short term, changes for the good of the whole may sometimes seem to be counter to the interests of a part of the system. It helps to remember that the parts of a system cannot survive without the whole. The long-term interests of your liver require the long-term health of your body, and the long-term interests of sawmills require the long-term health of forests.

Expand time horizons.

The official time horizon of industrial society doesn’t extend beyond what will happen after the next election or beyond the payback period of current investments. The time horizon of most families still extends farther than that through the lifetimes of children or grandchildren. Many Native American cultures actively spoke of and considered in their decisions the effects upon the seventh generation to come. The longer the operant time horizon, the better the chances for survival.

In the strict systems sense there is no long-term/short-term distinction. Phenomena at different timescales are nested within each other. Actions taken now have some immediate effects and some that radiate out for decades to come. We experience now the consequences of actions set in motion yesterday and decades ago and centuries ago.

When you’re walking along a tricky, curving, unknown, surprising, obstacle-strewn path, you’d be a fool to keep your head down and look just at the next step in front of you. You’d be equally a fool just to peer far ahead and never notice what’s immediately under your feet. You need to be watching both the short and long terms the whole system.

Expand thought horizons.

Defy the disciplines. In spite of what you majored in, or what the textbooks say, or what you think you’re an expert at, follow a system wherever it leads. It will be sure to lead across traditional disciplinary lines. To understand that system, you will have to be able to learn from while not being limited by economists and chemists and psychologists and theologians. You will have to penetrate their jargons, integrate what they tell you, recognize what they can honestly see through their particular lenses, and discard the distortions that come from the narrowness and incompleteness of their lenses. They won’t make it easy for you.

Seeing systems whole requires more than being “interdisciplinary,” if that word means, as it usually does, putting together people from different disciplines and letting them talk past each other. Interdisciplinary communication works only if there is a real problem to be solved, and if the representatives from the various disciplines are more committed to solving the problem than to being academically correct. They will have to go into learning mode, to admit ignorance and be willing to be taught, by each other and by the system.

It can be done. It’s very exciting when it happens.

Expand the boundary of caring.

Living successfully in a world of complex systems means expanding not only time horizons and thought horizons; above all it means expanding the horizons of caring. There are moral reasons for doing that, of course. And if moral arguments are not sufficient, systems thinking provides the practical reasons to back up the moral ones. The real system is interconnected. No part of the human race is separate either from other human beings or from the global ecosystem. It will not be possible in this integrated world for your heart to succeed if your lungs fail, or for your company to succeed if your workers fail, or for the rich in Los Angeles to succeed if the poor in Los Angeles fail, or for Europe to succeed if Africa fails, or for the global economy to succeed if the global environment fails.

As with everything else about systems, most people already know the interconnections that make moral and practical rules turn out to be the same rules. They just have to bring themselves to believe what they know.

Celebrate complexity.

Let’s face it, the universe is messy. It is nonlinear, turbulent, and chaotic. It is dynamic. It spends its time in transient behavior on its way to somewhere else, not in mathematically neat equilibria. It self-organizes and evolves. It creates diversity, not uniformity. That’s what makes the world interesting, that’s what makes it beautiful, and that’s what makes it work.

There’s something within the human mind that is attracted to straight lines and not curves, to whole numbers and not fractions, to uniformity and not diversity, and to certainties and not mystery. But there is something else within us that has the opposite set of tendencies, since we ourselves evolved out of and are shaped by and structured as complex feedback systems. Only a part of us, a part that has emerged recently, designs buildings as boxes with uncompromising straight lines and flat surfaces. Another part of us recognizes instinctively that nature designs in fractals, with intriguing detail on every scale from the microscopic to the macroscopic. That part of us makes Gothic cathedrals and Persian carpets, symphonies and novels, Mardi Gras costumes and artificial intelligence programs, all with embellishments almost as complex as the ones we find in the world around us.

Hold fast to the goal of goodness.

Examples of bad human behavior are held up, magnified by the media, affirmed by the culture, as typical. Just what you would expect. After all, we’re only human. The far more numerous examples of human goodness are barely noticed. They are Not News. They are exceptions. Must have been a saint. Can’t expect everyone to behave like that.

And so expectations are lowered. The gap between desired behavior and actual behavior narrows. Fewer actions are taken to affirm and instill ideals. The public discourse is full of cynicism. Public leaders are visibly, unrepentantly, amoral or immoral and are not held to account. Idealism is ridiculed. Statements of moral belief are suspect. It is much easier to talk about hate in public than to talk about love.

We know what to do about eroding goals. Don’t weigh the bad news more heavily than the good. And keep standards absolute.

This is quite a list. Systems thinking can only tell us to do these things. It can’t do them for us. And so we are brought to the gap between understanding and implementation. Systems thinking by itself cannot bridge that gap. But it can lead us to the edge of what analysis can do and then point beyond to what can and must be done by the human spirit.

Donella Meadows died in the spring of 2001. This article was excerpted from the manuscript of her unfinished last book.

Victor Papanek The green imperative

Booklist

Victor Papanek

Neil Maycroft Goldsmiths’ College, University of London.

Neil Maycroft currently teaches Contextual Studies at Goldsmiths’ College on both the Design Studies BA and the Design Futures MA. Previous lecturing in philosophy and sociology has focused his research interests onto the intersection of design studies with social theory, particularly in terms of material culture, autonomy and everyday life.

The Green Imperative by Victor Papanek, 1995 is published by Thames and Hudson, London. Paperback. ISBN 0 500 27846 6. Price £14.95.

Since the publication of Design for the Real World in 1969, Victor Papanek has been justly regarded as a pioneering advocate of design for human need and as a thorn in the side of the cosy world of mainstream commercial design.1 The book was championed by those who sought more human-centred and human-scale design. It was vilified and ridiculed by many of those who aimed to protect design from ethical and political scrutiny. Papanek’s new book The Green Imperative, while it builds consistently upon the issues of enduring interest to Papanek, is not likely to have such a divisive impact for reasons that should become clear below.

The book will certainly be devoured by students, writers and practitioners of design, who seek to further the cause of ecologically and ethically centred design. In this respect, The Green Imperative resonates with many contemporary themes of concern to designers. Apart from the explicitly ecological material, these include a renewed interest in vernacular architecture, in the concept of dwelling, in de-centralised production and in ethical consuming. Interestingly, such ideas also formed a part of the Zeitgeist at the end of the 1960s when Design for the Real World appeared.

The ecological content in The Green Imperative is wide-ranging and informative and, along with a focus on dwelling, forms one of the two main themes of the book. Papanek describes the damaging results of modern industrial practices on the ecosystem with passion. He includes some surprising details that add a human element to what could otherwise be regarded as dry statistics. For example, on average, three villages or towns have to be evacuated everyday somewhere in the world due to spillage of toxic chemicals and, there has been a major oil spillage into the oceans every second day for the last eighteen years (p.21).

After delineating such general ecological degradation, Papanek goes on to criticise the role that commercial design has played in this despoliation. He is particularly scathing about the complicity of designers in the production of unnecessary and wasteful consumer paraphernalia and their enslavement to the whims of the advertising and marketing professions. The result has been a design profession that ‘conforms, performs, deforms and misinforms’ rather than one that ‘informs, reforms and gives form’ (p 53). Papanek considers the environmental effects of various materials, techniques and processes in common use and goes on to suggest practical alternatives that designers may wish to consider. He is particularly critical of large-scale, highly centralised production, and argues for the expansion of a small-scale, de-centralised alternative. As usual, Papanek aims to lead from the front and he includes numerous examples taken from his own design work to illustrate his key points. In these respects, the book is both informative and useful.

The Green Imperative also has important and timely things to say to the consumers, or end-users as Papanek prefers, of design. The book features a checklist of questions that should be asked before a decision is made to acquire any designed good or product. These questions aim to interrogate the claims made by the promotional industries concerning the assumed convenience of consumer goods. For example, end-users should question the assumptions that smaller, more powerful, more complex, supposedly improved and overly packaged products are essentially better than the ones they currently use. The questions are posed in order to reveal the balance of malevolent or benign ecological effects of new products and, also to assess whether their use results in people becoming more dependent on further wasteful consumption or more autonomous in relation to the products that the market provides.

The ecological necessity of reducing our reliance on over-designed consumer goods, and especially their provision via the market ,underlies a further checklist of questions to be asked before buying products. Papanek urges us to firstly ask ourselves if we really need the item we are considering. If the answer is yes then a number of alternatives to buying should be considered. These include buying second-hand, borrowing, renting, leasing, sharing, co-ownership and buying in kit form. The book charts the recent expansion of such alternatives and particularly champions the sharing of infrequently used products. Sharing spreads cost and maintenance, whilst maximising use and encouraging co-operation and a sense of community.

When a product reaches the end of its usefulness, Papanek encourages us to consider alternatives to disposal. These include recycling, repairing and reusing. He particularly endorses the benefits of in-built Design for Disassembly, a design principle that could enlarge the effect of these alternatives.

Papanek argues that design should also be more ethical. He means this in two senses. Firstly, the design professions themselves should construct codes of ethics that are genuinely regulative, protective, specific and transparent to outside inspection. Such an approach would mean an end to the ‘self-serving’ codes of conduct that characterise the majority of modern professional design ethics. Secondly, both designers and end-users should ask whether a design helps or further marginalises disenfranchised and poor sections of society, if it eases pain, whether it aids environmental sustainability, and so on. This is a theme that has consistently run through Papanek’s writing for the past thirty years.

The hopeful end-result of considering the ethics and environmental impact of design is the development of a new design aesthetic which will imbue designed products with a set of ethical and ecological meanings. What form such an aesthetics will take cannot be delineated beforehand but, Papanek is adamant that this new aesthetic will be more meaningful and satisfying than that which characterises the bulk of commodities designed with the market and conspicuous consumption in mind.

The second major theme of The Green Imperative is that of dwelling. Papanek investigates the notion of dwelling from several angles: the sensory body and its relationship to space, the dehumanising effects of modern urban practice, and the sensual, social and ecological importance of vernacular architecture. He argues that we have gradually had our senses eroded in industrialised societies and that this has led to a loss of the experience of dwelling in favour of merely living in abodes that have little spirituality to their design. The modern house has become a functional receptacle for standardised consumer goods. Consequently, the design of houses has ignored the full importance of our senses. Little attention is paid to the ways in which subtle variations in lighting, sound, texture, smell and location affect our feelings, moods and experiences. Similarly, our modern houses pay scant attention to the relationship of the body to space. Our domestic space has had its symbolic aspects largely removed from it to be replaced by a strictly geometric and rationalised conception. Papanek contrasts this experience with other cultures, especially in Japan and Bali, where the sensory and spatial aspects of dwelling are of paramount significance.

Modern architectural and urban practices have, according to Papanek, resulted in cities that are too big, too polluted, overly car-accommodating and alienating. Some of the basic principles of ‘benign architecture’ have been surrendered to the dictates of speculative finance capital in its search for profitable sites. The sense of location, the aesthetics of site and notions of human scale are all required to reinvigorate the richness that urban living can provide. He invokes various ‘fundamental’ principles from mathematics, anthropology and psychology to underlie his vision of small, convivial and ecologically sustainable urban life. Again, such ideas mark an ongoing development of key themes in Papanek’s writing over the past three decades.

Key to the rediscovery of a sense of dwelling and to the conviviality of urban life is vernacular architecture. Papanek criticises several popular myths about this ‘architecture without architects’. These include the ideas that vernacular architecture is worthy simply because it is either historical, romantic, sacred or popular. He goes on to reject many common explanations of its development and evolves a complex explanatory web which mirrors his approach to explaining design in general (p136). Vernacular architecture displays certain features that Papanek believes should inform architectural design in industrialised societies: it is based on traditional knowledge and techniques, is usually self-built and features a high regard for craftsmanship. Furthermore, vernacular structures are easy to understand, are made of local materials predominantly, are ecologically sensitive, are of human scale and are unselfconscious. In many respects it is the antithesis of modern architectural practice in industrialised societies. Just as an ethically and ecologically informed design produces a more fulfilling and meaningful aesthetic so, vernacular architecture implies a more meaningful and authentic sense of dwelling. Papanek’s marshalling of an eclectic range of intellectual resources and personal reflections, to build his case, is always interesting and provocative.

The above summary of the main points of The Green Imperative should indicate the extent to which the book resonates with many contemporary themes of interest to designers. This makes its publication timely and a welcome addition to a growing resource of ideas that can inform ethically and ecologically committed design practice. However, this timeliness also explains why the book is unlikely to have the contentious and divisive effect that Design for the Real World provoked.

It is unlikely to be as contentious because the last decade has seen a proliferation of texts that use similar material and reach similar conclusions to Papanek. Whilst the green ‘moment’ may have passed in some disciplines or been industrially incorporated into so-called ‘green consumerism’, ecological concern is now a far more readily acceptable facet of design theory and practice than it was a decade ago. There have been a number of books that have explored the concepts of wasteful ‘consumer-led’ design2, the development of a green aesthetic3 and ‘green’ design4 which cover much of the same terrain as The green imperative. Ironically, some of these books have contributed to something of a Papanek renaissance by introducing his ideas to a contemporary audience. The book is less likely to be divisive because these days the heads of most commercial design groups will at least pledge allegiance to ecological and ethical credentials even if they do not actually practice what they preach.

Papanek’s writing on architecture and dwelling also enters an intellectual milieu that is sympathetically receptive. The ‘greening’ of the urban environment has been explored in the writings of the Gaia theorists and the ‘eco-city’ advocates. The revival of interest in ‘small is beautiful’ economics and de-centralised production, along with developments such as the growth in DIY culture, the allotment movement, and the expansion of Local Exchange Trading Schemes, all reverberate with Papanek’s ideal of vernacular, convivial and human-scale urbanism5,6. In these respects, The green imperative is a timely and informative addition to a growing body of knowledge.

However, the book is problematic in several ways. Firstly, the tone is often somewhat smug and preaching. One gains the impression that only Papanek, or those that have come into direct contact with him, has contributed towards ethical or ecologically sustainable design in industrialised societies. Papanek is certainly an important pioneer in these respects, but is not the lone hero these days that he sometimes presents himself to be.

Secondly, many may object to the eclecticism that characterises The Green Imperative. Papanek is a formidable polymath but, at times, his attempts to justify his ideas results in a very strange brew of references. Nietzsche, Freud, and Jung nestle beside Mumford, Sotsass and Philip Johnson, in a rather uncritical appropriation of any idea that seem to support the case he is making. It is ironic that he berates post modernism for falling into extreme relativism (p.11) whilst relying on such an eclectic jumble of science, pseudo-science, mysticism and incompatible political viewpoints. Similarly, his rejection of nihilism sits uneasily beside his attempt to claim the nihilistic flimflam of Memphis design for the tradition of Dadaism and its radical re-appropriation of the commodity form (p.55).

The main failing of The Green Imperative is its naivetÈ. This manifests itself in many forms but, I shall just mention just three of them. Firstly, there is a good deal of ecological naivetÈ apparent in some of Papanek’s prescriptions. For example, his endorsement of de-centralised production is too vague to be of much use. Papanek does not elaborate which types of production can and cannot be de-centralised in an ecologically benign manner. The ecological consequences of local, neighbourhood production of tyres, plastics or chemicals, for example, would be disastrous. Centralised production of certain materials and products is necessary and justified in order to exercise some kind of meaningful control and co-ordination over the productive process. Just because centralised industrial production as it currently stands is not ecologically benign does mean that it cannot be made so or, that de-centralised production is somehow essentially more ecologically sustaining. It is also clear that, in the foreseeable future, recycling will have to rely on centralised processes in order to maintain its ecological advantages. Similarly, Papanek’s implicit disurbanism could only be brought about with enormous ecological costs. Should we really embark on the dismantling of our cities because some behavioural scientists have calculated the size of ‘ideal’ communities or because tribes of Indian Langur monkeys split when they exceed five hundred (p112)? His ecological naivetÈ’ is also manifested in his call for the widespread replacement of product buying by self-assembly kit buying. One wonders where will the kits be manufactured, by whom and in what kinds of conditions?

The second kind of naivetÈ’ apparent in The Green Imperative is political. Papanek over-estimates the power of design in shaping the social relations of a society and provides little detail of how political power must be sought and incorporated into the societal changes he wishes to see. One gains the impression that by simply pointing out the ecological folly of the way we live, we will automatically reach a philanthropic consensus and so radically change the nature of our productive processes and consumption habits. There is little feeling in Papanek’s writing of the ways in which powerful vested interests have financial, military and political stakes which may well result in them acting in consciously damaging ways where the environment is concerned. For example, we may now in this country have reduced the damaging ecological consequences of coal mining but, this has been because we have chosen to import our coal from countries where it is mined by children in appalling conditions and with little environmental monitoring or intervention. Papanek speaks of the need to establish a link between design and social justice but, he provides little detail of how this may be realistically developed in a global economy with an ever-increasing geographical division of labour.

The main naivetÈ’ displayed in the book is over the issue of political economy. To a large degree, the first two points made above are really manifestations of this more general weakness. It is not just Papanek who has failed to get to grips with political economy. It is an obvious and persistent lacuna in much green debate. According to Papanek, the search for profit is ‘legitimate’ (p.138), yet he fails to appreciate that in order to secure profit the capitalist economy must continually expand. One of its chief means of doing this in our time is through the production of more and more commodities that must be then consumed in order to realise profit. When the search for profit runs up against concern for the environment, it is usually the environment that is sacrificed to the expediencies of maximising profit. There are also many people, including designers, who regard the search for profit as being far from legitimate, and who would insist on emphasising the economic relationship between generating profit and the worsening of those social conditions, which Papanek claims can be alleviated by considering the ethical implications of choosing to buy a particular product (p.54).

Similarly, Papanek’s preference for the term end-user rather than consumer also reveals his naivetÈ’. He argues that end-users need to regain the joy of owning as few material possessions as possible. It is a laudable sentiment. However, consumers are linked to acquiring high levels of material possessions in ways that Papanek underestimates. He adopts a rather basic view that ideological manipulation by greedy advertisers is all that binds people to mass consumption. This fails to recognise the political economy of consumption. For example, one reason why many people have substituted commodity replacements for many activities that they previously carried out for themselves (microwave ovens and pre-prepared food instead of cooking, televisions, home computers and videos instead of more autonomous or publicly-oriented creative pursuits) is because they have increasingly less free time to maintain, protect and develop skills and autonomous capabilities for themselves. Papanek states at one point that people working on factory assembly lines are probably not going to be inclined to participate readily in many meaningful or autonomous activities at the end of a long day. His proposes that building products from kit form would be more creative and satisfying than just passively buying. I would agree with this but, it overlooks two points: firstly, the massive reduction of meaningless, boring work would be an incredible boost to the development of the type of autonomous activities Papanek endorses. Reduction of working time would allow people to recover more fully from work and give them the time to engage in satisfying individual or local activities. The recovery of the abilities to do things for oneself would also result in lessening people’s dependence on ecologically wasteful commodity substitutes. Secondly, we could ask: would the mass production of self-assembly kits (including cookers, refrigerators, televisions and computers, which Papanek recommends p243) be any more meaningful or less stultifying than the assembly line production of the completed product? The answer is likely to be no, and the implication becomes clear: the main prerequisite for the development of the type of society that Papanek wants to see is a massive reduction in working time, particularly where repetitive meaningless and boring work is concerned. The redistribution of work would re-enfranchise millions of marginalised people, an ethically sound proposal in Papanek’s terms. These issues of political economy, working time and material culture have been explored in a much more convincing manner in commentaries outside of the design field7,8,9.

In conclusion, The Green Imperative is a welcome contribution to debates cast around the relationships between design, ecology and ethics. Its wealth of empirical detail and its optimism make it a valuable resource for those trying to steer an ethically and ecologically informed path through the world of contemporary professional design practice. This review does scant justice to many of the intriguing themes presented, such as the design abilities of the Inuit, the call for the return of the ephemeral to daily life, or the proposals presented for design education. Papanek should be congratulated for his decades long pioneering and exemplary approach to these important issues. However, for those wishing to pursue a deeper understanding of the role of design in advanced industrial societies, the book is disappointingly bereft of insightful analysis or plausible explanation.

References

1) Papanek, V. (1981) Design for the real world, Thames and Hudson, London.return

2) Whiteley, N. (1993) Design for society, Reaktion Books, London.return

3) Vale, R. & Vale, B. (1991)Green architecture, London, Thames and Hudson.return

4) Mackenzie, D. (1991) Design for the Environment, Lawrence King, London.return

5) Sherlock, H. (1991) Cities are good for us: the case for high densities, friendly streets, local shops and public transport, Paladin, London.return

6) Whyte, W.H. (1988) The city: rediscovering the centre, Doubleday, New York.return

7) Gorz, A. (1980) Ecology as politics, Pluto, London.return

8) Gorz, A. (1985) Paths to paradise: on the liberation from work, , Pluto, London.return

9) Lipietz, A. (1992) Towards a new economic order, Polity Press, Cambridge, UK.return

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